Thyroglobulin is a large globular glycoprotein (approximate MW = 660,000) produced by follicular cells of the thyroid gland. Post-translational iodination and proteolysis of thyroglobulin produces the two iodine containing hormones of the thyroid, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The rate of synthesis of thyroglobulin in the thyroid is regulated by follicle stimulating hormone of the anterior pituitary gland.
Serum levels of thyroglobulin are useful in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, Graves' disease, and several other physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
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